The content of tonight’s readings are pretty well known. The Ten Commandments, and the story of Jesus cleansing the temple. Now – spot quiz – at first glance, what do they both have in common?
I could do with a ‘Countdown Timer’ here….
Well, they both appear more than once in the Bible.
The list of commandments we know as the Ten Commandments occurs 3 times; Exodus 34 is the only place where the label “The Ten Commandments” is used in the Bible. The other two listings (Exodus 20 – tonight’s reading – and Deuteronomy 5) are normally referred to as the Ten Commandments, but the actual text doesn’t describe them as such.
And cleansing the Temple – that appears once in each Gospel. The narrative occurs near the end of the Matthew, Mark and Luke’s Gospels, and near the start in the Gospel of John – our OTHER reading tonight.
Now, remember how I said ‘At first glance’ in my question? Well, some scholars believe that these refer to two separate incidents, tonight’s cleansing happening at the start of Jesus’s Ministry, and the other three Gospels describing a different event that took place at the end of Jesus’s ministry. I think that this is quite reasonable; John’s Gospel also features more than one Passover, so more than one visit to the Temple by Jesus would certainly happen.
So – why did Jesus behave like this? We know from his previous experiences that Jesus wasn’t a stranger to the Temple in Jerusalem; he once ended up there ‘on His Father’s business’, as he put it, when he was a boy, and we can understand his affection and respect for the Temple. The Temple was the Third Temple – the Temple of Herod, initiated by Herod to try and gain favour with the Jewish people. By the time today’s reading takes place, it’s still not complete – it would only be completed about 6 or 7 years before it’s destruction in 70 AD.
It’s worth taking a look at the context of why the animals were in the temple precincts anyway, and what the money changers actually were.
At Passover, people would come to Jerusalem from all over Israel – and from further afield as well. All worshippers at the Temple except women and children – would be expected to pay a half-shekel Temple Tax – worth about £2.50 at the current value of silver – and would also be expected to provide a sacrificial animal; a lamb or calf.
Now, the money had to be sanctified – Temple money. You couldn’t just give over any old cash. Each year different coins would be produced, and as a visitor you would exchange your currency for the Temple coins with which to pay the Temple Tax. This is where the money changers came in. Similarly, many people coming to Jerusalem would find it easier to buy a sacrificial animal on arrival, rather than bring one with them on a long journey.
There was also a risk associated with bringing your own sacrificial animal. Anything presented for sacrifice had to be of highest quality and would need to be approved by the Temple authorities before it could be sacrificed.
And here we find things get a bit messy, and potentially corrupt; money changers would charge a fee for each transaction they carried out. Sellers of sacrificial animals would sell at a much higher price than would be normally expected, and it was often suspected that the Temple authorities would be ‘encouraged’ by the sellers of sacrificial livestock to disapprove as many ‘out of town’ animals as possible. Quite a few opportunities for the world of commerce and human greed to come between a worshipper and God.
Initially, the animal dealers were based outside the Temple, in the valley of Kidron on the Mount of Olives, but eventually, by the time Jesus visits, they’ve moved in to an area of the Temple called the Court of the Gentiles – the part of the temple that is open to Gentiles as well as Jews. In other words, part of the worship space has become a combination of a bank and a cattle market.
In Mark’s Gospel, Chapter 11 Verse 17, we hear that the temple was designed to be a place of worship for all nations. Gentiles who wished to worship God could, in principle, do so in the Court of the Gentiles – however, this area was now not really fit for worship – and this is why Jesus is so angry. His Father’s house is not fit to be a place of worship for all nations, if the gentiles have to worship amidst animals and moneychangers.
There’s a general idea amongst people that here’s where we see ‘Rambo Jesus’ – wading in and whipping the people as well as the animals to get them out of the Temple Court. This is how it’s portrayed in at least one painting; but it’s not the case; the whip was used to drive the animals out, and Jesus turned over the tables over the money changers and generally ruined business for the day.
His disciples remembered what was said in scripture about the coming Messiah – that they would be overcome with zeal for the house of the Lord. Well, this meets the bill. The Jewish authorities, unsurprisingly, were less impressed and asked him on whose authority Jesus was asking. His answer – that he would be able to raise the Temple in 3 days – rather foxed them. But this answer, combined with the scriptural reference – was remembered by Jesus’s disciples after his death and resurrection, and reminded them again of the truth of the Scripture and of His teachings.
Temples are not just buildings. As Jesus pointed out – the body is a temple; even our human bodies.
Our Temple is our body, heart, mind and soul. The place where we meet with God.
What do we do in our temple to interfere with worship? Who are the sellers of sacrificial animals and temple money-changers in our hearts and minds? Maybe:
- The noise and bustle of the market place of ideas
- The sense that what we bring – our thoughts, feelings, our very body itself – isn’t clean enough, good enough or pure enough?
- The sense that we need to change what we are for something else to become acceptable?
What can we do to cleanse our heart and mind to make accepting Jesus easier, to make worship and prayer easier?
- We can bring Quiet in to our hearts.
- We can accept and embrace the we’re broken; we’re fallen; we will never be perfect. That’s fine. We just try not to sin; be repentant. It’s an ongoing process; try again, fail again, try again. Keep at it. That’s how we are – that’s how God expects to find us. Be yourself and present yourself to Jesus humbly, throwing yourself on his grace and mercy.
- We are unique; we are made in the image of God. There is nothing in what we are to change, just how we behave.
Driving out these distractions and impediments to worship from OUR temple is not easy. I feel I’d have more luck with shifting sheep and cows and overturning a few tables than I would in controlling and disciplining my occasionally unruly heart and head.
But, we need to make our temple suitable for worship of the Lord.
May our equivalent of whips and table turning be effective.
Reader Joe Pritchard